Module 1: Generic methodologies for nanotechnology (CMNS5100)
The principles of production, fabrication and characterisation of nanoscale structures, including an introduction to working in ultra-clean environments.
On completion of this module, you will be able to:
- Understand the principles and relative merits of a range of techniques for the production of nanostructures including ultra-thin films and multilayers.
- Appreciate the important issues involved in commissioning a preparation laboratory for nanostructured materials.
- Understand the basic principles, uses and limitations of a wide variety of materials, characterisation techniques applicable to the elucidation of the structure, chemistry and properties of nanostructured materials.
- Identify the pertinent parameters, amenable to characterisation, governing a general description of nanostructured materials and devices.
- Introduction to nanoscale materials.
- Generally applicable techniques for the preparation of bulk nanostructured materials, thin films, multilayers, patterned nanostructures.
- Preparation environment commissioning and working in ultra-clean environments.
- High spatial resolution techniques for the characterisation of nanostructures.
Nanoscale Science and Technology - Implications for Physics and Engineering; Implications for Chemistry and Biology.
Classification of bulk nanostructured materials, nanoparticles, quantum dots, nanowires, ultra-thin films, multilayered materials. Lengthscales involved and effect on properties: mechanical, electronic, optical, magnetic and thermal properties. Introduction to properties and motivation for study.
Preparation of Nanoscale Materials: Precipitation, mechanical milling, colloidal routes, self-assembly; vapour phase deposition, MOCVD, sputtering, evaporation, molecular beam epitaxy, atomic layer epitaxy, MOMBE.
Patterning and Lithography for Nanoscale Devices: Optical/UV, electron beam and X-ray lithography systems and processes, wet etching, dry (plasma/reactive ion etching), etch resists.
Clean rooms: specification and design, air and water purity, requirements for particular processes.
Vibration-free environments: services and facilities required.
Working practices: sample cleaning, chemical purification, chemical and biological contamination.
Safety issues: flammable and toxic hazards, bio-hazards.
- X-ray and neutron diffraction techniques.
- Scanning Electron Microscopy plus environmental techniques.
- Transmission Electron Microscopy including high resolution imaging.
- Analytical Electron Microscopy.
- EDX and EELS.
- Surface Analysis Techniques.
- XPS, SIMS, Auger.